Vida teatral en Córdoba (1602-1694): autores de comedias,

Categories Spanish & Portuguese

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Language: English

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By 1560, 40 years after they performed their "heroic" service, the tribute extracted from the Huexotzincos by the Spanish was seven times what the Mexica had obtained from them.� The deal that Cort�s made with the Tlaxcalans was that they would never have to pay tribute at all.� Tlaxcalans eventually fared much the same, as the city of Tlaxcala collapsed from about 300,000 when Cort�s arrived to only 700 people a century later.� Europeans replaced Mesoamerican elites, and all natives were reduced to peasants, with lucky mestizos forming the professional class, although there was more migration into the European class by natives in Mexico, and more adoption of native ways, than the rest of Spanish America. [68] Europeans honored their agreements when they were convenient or served their interests, but when an agreement obstructed European desires, it was not worth the paper it was printed on.� Europeans would always find a legal rationale, no matter how strained, to justify their behavior.� They backed up their legalistic arguments with deadly violence.� Occasionally the most abusive Spaniards would find themselves being imprisoned for crimes against the natives, but that treatment was reserved for either the most evil of the lot or those with political enemies. [69] � The crown-sponsored residencias and audiencias investigated the conduct of New World officials such as Cort�s.� The tribunals recorded many allegations and evidence of misdeeds, which historians have used ever since.� While such investigations may seem to reflect the Spaniards' “just” nature, and indeed “justice” seemed to be served at times, the residencias were mainly used to trim the power of those posing the greatest threats to Crown authority. [70] Fraud, corruption, and exploitation were the facts of life in colonial Mexico, and natives always bore the brunt of it. [71] � The legal system was rigged to favor the Spaniards.� One of the few honest lawyers in New Spain suggested a method to reduce the fraud and corruption: keep Spanish lawyers out of the natives’ business. [72] � European cultural practices could be found in many facets of the colonial experience.� Although Montezuma had a hunting island, the aristocratic "hunts" of Europe made their appearance, which used thousands of natives to flush the animals out to be slaughtered at leisure by Spaniards trying to act like European lords. [73] Before the mid dle of the 17th century, the native population in Mexico bottomed out at perhaps less than ten percent of the pre-conquest population. [74] � After that, it began a slow recovery.� After studying what the Spanish did to the Caribbean and periphery, what they did to the Aztecs and Mesoamerica, what they did to the Incas and South America, their “explorations” into North America, what the Portuguese did to Brazil, and after looking at the death rates in the mines, plantations and periphery, I estimate that more than 10 million natives died as a direct result of the violence and greed of the Spanish and Portuguese during the 1500s, and perhaps even 20 million (in Alexander Del Mar's A History of the Precious Metals, he estimated 20 million deaths in the mining operations alone).� Some can argue for as few as ten million (while others argue that there were not ten million natives in the whole hemisphere), and others can argue for as many as 30 million.� European diseases killed off another 50 million natives or so in the 1500s, and the Spanish and Portuguese labor practices probably contributed substantially to those 50 million deaths.� It is within the range of modern estimates to say that the New World’s human population declined by 90% during the first century of the European invasion, or by about 70 million people, and even the low end of the modern estimates have around 30 million natives dying, for "only" a 75% depopulation.� It is an immense tally, with nothing in world history to compare it to.

Pages: 602

Publisher: Tamesis Books (July 16, 2008)

ISBN: 1855661713

The phrase, Voy a coger el autobus (I'll take the bus) is, in the presence of Mexicans, a certain cause for hilarity. In Mexico the word tomar (to take drink, occupy) is frequently used instead of coger The native tribes were nearly wiped out due to disease, slavery and war with the settlers. Sugar cane became the main crop and income source for the settlers. Going along with the Treaty of Tordesillas, Spain and Portugal had divided South America in two. The west side belonging to the Spaniards, the east side to Portugal ref.: As an adjective, muito is inflected according to the gender and number of the noun it qualifies, like mucho Collaborative Latin American Popular Theatre: From Theory to Form,. From Text to Stage (American. Focusing on colonial Mexico, the KRAUS COLLECTION contains documents on exploration, government, the Inquisition, economic conditions, Indian relations, and the impending loss of land to Anglo-American settlers in Florida , source: The Pied Pipers of today's march to doom are accomplished students of the dark spiritual path, and have found that a humanity seeking comfort above all else is easy to manipulate, and the American citizenry is putty in their hands.� We need to develop a collective conscience.� “What we say, g oes.”� - George Bush the First, speaking of the lesson that Iraq and the world should have learned from the Gulf War, on NBC Nightly News, Feb. 2, 1991.� “We think the price is worth it.”� Madeleine Albright, on 60 Minutes in 1996, when asked if killing a half million Iraqi children, as a consequence of America’s economic war against Iraq, was a justifiable side effect. "The only way to make sense of why this happened is that we are a country that stands up for freedom, democracy and human rights." - Madeleine Albright, when asked to make sense of the World Trade Center attacks, Oprah Magazine, December 2001. “Americans are a sking, ‘Why do they hate us?’ They hate what they see right here in this chamber: a democratically elected government.� Their leaders are self-appointed
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